Yogurt is a fermented milk product that contains the characteristic bacterial cultures Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. All yogurt must contain at least 8.25% solids not fat. Full fat yogurt must contain not less than 3.25% milk fat, lowfat yogurt not more than 2% milk fat, and nonfat yogurt less than 0.5% milk. The full legal definitions for yogurt, lowfat yogurt and nonfat yogurt are specified in the Standards of Identity listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), in sections 21 CFR 131.200, 21 CFR 131.203, and 21 CFR 131.206, respectively.
The two styles of yogurt commonly found in the grocery store are set type yogurt and swiss style yogurt. Set type yogurt is when the yogurt is packaged with the fruit on the bottom of the cup and the yogurt on top. Swiss style yogurt is when the fruit is blended into the yogurt prior to packaging.
The main ingredient in yogurt is milk. The type of milk used depends on the type of yogurt – whole milk for full fat yogurt, lowfat milk for lowfat yogurt, and skim milk for nonfat yogurt. Other dairy ingredients are allowed in yogurt to adjust the composition, such as cream to adjust the fat content, and nonfat dry milk to adjust the solids content. The solids content of yogurt is often adjusted above the 8.25% minimum to provide a better body and texture to the finished yogurt. The CFR contains a list of the permissible dairy ingredients for yogurt.
Stabilizers may also be used in yogurt to improve the body and texture by increasing firmness, preventing separation of the whey (syneresis), and helping to keep the fruit uniformly mixed in the yogurt. Stabilizers used in yogurt are alginates (carageenan), gelatins, gums (locust bean, guar), pectins, and starch.
Sweeteners, flavors and fruit preparations are used in yogurt to provide variety to the consumer. A list of permissible sweeteners for yogurt is found in the CFR.
The main (starter) cultures in yogurt are Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The function of the starter cultures is to ferment lactose (milk sugar) to produce lactic acid. The increase in lactic acid decreases pH and causes the milk to clot, or form the soft gel that is characteristic of yogurt. The fermentation of lactose also produces the flavor compounds that are characteristic of yogurt. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are the only 2 cultures required by law (CFR) to be present in yogurt.
Other bacterial cultures, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus subsp. casei, and Bifido-bacteria may be added to yogurt as probiotic cultures. Probiotic cultures benefit human health by improving lactose digestion, gastrointestinal function, and stimulating the immune system.
The following flow chart and discussion provide a general outline of the steps required for making yogurt. For a more detailed explanation see the literature references by Staff (1998), Tamime and Robinson (1999), Walstra et al. (1999) and the website by Goff, www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/yogurt.html.
General Yogurt Processing Steps
- Adjust Milk Composition & Blend Ingredients
- Pasteurize Milk
- Cool Milk
- Inoculate with Starter Cultures
- Add Flavors & Fruit
Milk composition may be adjusted to achieve the desired fat and solids content. Often dry milk is added to increase the amount of whey protein to provide a desirable texture. Ingredients such as stabilizers are added at this time.
The milk mixture is pasteurized at 185°F (85°C) for 30 minutes or at 203°F (95°C) for 10 minutes. A high heat treatment is used to denature the whey (serum) proteins. This allows the proteins to form a more stable gel, which prevents separation of the water during storage. The high heat treatment also further reduces the number of spoilage organisms in the milk to provide a better environment for the starter cultures to grow. Yogurt is pasteurized before the starter cultures are added to ensure that the cultures remain active in the yogurt after fermentation to act as probiotics; if the yogurt is pasteurized after fermentation the cultures will be inactivated.
The blend is homogenized (2000 to 2500 psi) to mix all ingredients thoroughly and improve yogurt consistency.
The milk is cooled to 108°F (42°C) to bring the yogurt to the ideal growth temperature for the starter culture.
The starter cultures are mixed into the cooled milk.
The milk is held at 108°F (42°C) until a pH 4.5 is reached. This allows the fermentation to progress to form a soft gel and the characteristic flavor of yogurt. This process can take several hours.
The yogurt is cooled to 7°C to stop the fermentation process.
Fruit and flavors are added at different steps depending on the type of yogurt. For set style yogurt the fruit is added in the bottom of the cup and then the inoculated yogurt is poured on top and the yogurt is fermented in the cup. For swiss style yogurt the fruit is blended with the fermented, cooled yogurt prior to packaging.
The yogurt is pumped from the fermentation vat and packaged as desired.